It is the sponsor's responsibility to make sure indemnity and insurance arrangements are in place to protect participants in a research study.
For research sponsored by AWP, the NHS Clinical Negligence Scheme applies and provides unlimited cover for NHS staff, medical academic staff with honorary contracts and those conducting research against negligent harm.
Non-negligent harm (i.e. harm that has been caused through no fault of those conducting research) is not covered by this scheme.
For research sponsored by commercial companies, the arrangements for indemnity and insurance are covered in the agreement that R&D negotiates with the company.